PIXIPOL, a unified theoretical currency

A. D. Corlan

2015-01-03 (last changed: 2018-11-05) (archived at: http://www.webcitation.org/6WBhwsay9 as well as, previously, http://www.webcitation.org/6VP52twpk)

The pixipol system of theoretical currencies (account money) is an attempt to provide a method to estimate the purchasing power of money, using an unit that is constant in time and (geographical) space.

Its purpose is primarily to allow a quick, gross, assessment of the value of ammounts mentioned in historical novels, movies and TV shows (how much is a doubloon worth in strips of gold pressed latinum? well, 8/15, a little above half a strip.).

The pixipol [PXP] is defined as equal to a debasing Special Drawing Right (XDR or SDR), with an average rate of 3.1415926% per year, that covers the recent decades, after the end of the Bretton Woods system. The value of the pixipol was 1 PXP = 1 XDR at t0=september 2, 2006.

1 PXP = 1.031415926(t-t0) XDR at time t, measured in years.

A convenient subdivision of the PXP is the PXS, or the picsikle or, shortly, the pic (we will use PIC below), that is:

1 PIC = 1/60 PXP

For the interval covering the 3000 years before the Bretton Woods, when the currency, or at least the account currencies, effectively consisted of gold and silver, 1 PIC is defined as 1/16 of a gram of sterling (0.925) silver or 1/240 of a gram of standard (0.91) gold. The gold/silver ratio that we assume is thus 15.247253 which is the upper limit of the gold/silver purchasing power ratio along the history. It is also close to the ratio of the two metals in natural deposits. The current world market ratio is about 3 times higher for gold, but neither gold nor silver are really circulating as money anymore. The PIC is also close to the value of a troy grain of silver, as well as, grossly, a stater, or shekel, of brass or other non-ferous base metals, thus the name (picsikle).

The most widely used currency standards used across multiple countries and regions over the history are assigned integer numbers of PICs, that approximate either the definition of theoretical currencies (for example: one troy pound of sterling is about 373g, but we assign for it 6000 PICs, that is 375*16) or the most widely circulated ammount, or just an ammount in the middle of the circulating range for the more fluctuating currencies.

The assignment of the PIC ammount for each currency is choosen as to preserve, as much as possible, widely known and used historical ratios between various coins.

Ammounts of other commodities, such as copper or wheat, that have been widely used as 'natural' currencies are also assigned PIC ammounts, based on current market values. These prices show a curious constancy (with fluctuations of up to only three times) with respect to silver, extending over the last millenia.

Another commodity that is relatively constant with respect to the a stable currency value is energy. 1 PIC = 1 MJ (megajoule) of electricity delivered at the power socket in a city household for most countries (like the USA or Romania) that do not tax electricity too highly, thus it represents an adequate gross assessment of its economic value.

The PIXORLANT (PXO) or CLARKE is a PIXIPOL multiple:

1 PXO = 60 PXP

It is equivallent to 1MWh of electrical energy delivered at the home socket. Arthur Clarke predicted that in 2016 all other currencies will be replaced by the MWh, thereby this unit is also called a 'Clarke'.

Besides grasping what values they talk about in novels, you can use these to evaluate things such as total cost of ownership of something over many years (when devaluation counts).

And also, of course, you can resuscitate ancient currencies. For example, you can take a piece a paper and write on it ``I will pay the bearer 1 ELECTRUM STATER (1500 PIC)'' and sign it. Now you have an item having about the same buying power as the oldest coin in the world had---provided that you are solvable :).

If you want to also feel it, you can make it a token having the wood volume or cardboard area proportional to the PIC value. The computations for their sizes are available by clicking on the curency names below.

With the wooden versions you can add them up by weighting an assortment of tokens, like in the old times.

Have fun.

List of all PIC/Clarke-based theoretical currency systems

The currency systems that follow consist of the main currency and its subdivisions. The number in parantheses represents the ammount of each currency in pics.

CLARKE: Decimal clarke system (Arthur Clarke: the MWh as currency)

1 CLARKE (3600) = 10 DALEON (360) = 100 ZUZ (36) = 1000 MILLICLARKE (18/5)

CLARKE-ELECTRIC: Electric energy system

1 GWH-E (3600000) = 1000 CLARKE (3600) = 1000 MWH-E (3600) = 120000 WAAN (30) = 1000000 KWH-E (18/5)

CATTLE: Earliest systems of cattle and grain as currency

1 VACA (36000) = 10 OVIS (3600) = 40 KOKU (900) = 6000 KG (6) = 7200 LITRE (5)

PIXIPOL: Pixipol system (hexagensimal clarke)

1 PXT (216000) = 60 PXO (3600) = 60 CLARKE (3600) = 3600 PXP (60) = 216000 PIC (1) = 12960000 NIC (1/60)

DECIPIC: Decimal system based on PIC.

1 MOL (1000000) = 100 KLON (10000) = 1000 SOL (1000) = 10000 DON (100) = 100000 LON (10) = 1000000 PIC (1)

ATTIC: Attic system

1 TALANT (432000) = 60 MINA (7200) = 300 CROESID (1440) = 1500 TETRADRACHM (288) = 3000 DIDRACHM (144) = 6000 DRACHM (72) = 36000 OBOL (12)

ELENISTIC: Later greek system, combined with contemporary middle east systems

1 TALANT (432000) = 60 MINA (7200) = 200 DARIC (2160) = 1500 TETRADRACHM (288) = 3000 SHEKEL (144) = 3000 DIDRACHM (144) = 4000 SIGLOI (108) = 6000 DRACHM (72) = 12000 ZUZ (36) = 36000 OBOL (12) = 48000 TRITETARTEMORION (9) = 72000 HEMIOBOL (6) = 96000 TRIHEMITETARTEMORION (9/2) = 144000 TETARTEMORION (3) = 288000 HEMITETARTEMORION (3/2) = 288000 KHALKOI (3/2)

ROMAN: Roman early imperial system (O. Augustus).

1 AUREUS (1500) = 25 DENARIUS (60) = 100 SESTERT (15) = 250 AS (6)

BYZANTINE: Byzantine system

1 NOMISMA (1120) = 24 SILIQUA (140/3) = 420 FOLLIS (8/3) = 16800 NUMMUS (1/15)

CAROLINGIAN: Mid-medieval system in western Europe (mostly England and France)

1 POUND (6000) = 3 NOBLE (2000) = 12 CROWN (500) = 20 SHILLING (300) = 60 GROAT (100) = 240 PENNY (25)

SLAVIC: Early slavic system

1 GRIVNA (3200) = 40 RUBLE (80) = 50 KUNA (64) = 100 YARMAK (32) = 4000 KOPEIK (4/5) = 8000 DENGA (2/5)

JAPANESE: Pre-yen japanese system

1 RYO (3000) = 10/3 KOKU (900) = 4 BU (750) = 16 SHU (375/2) = 50 MONME (60) = 4000 MON (3/4)

SPANISH: Spanish empire/mexican system. PESO=piece-of-eight

1 DOUBLOON (6400) = 8 SCUD (800) = 16 PESO (400) = 32 PESETA (200) = 128 REAL (50) = 3840 MARAVEDI (5/3)

DOLLAR: US/Spanish dollar, decimalised.

1 EAGLE (4000) = 10 DOLLAR (400) = 40 QUARTER (100) = 100 DIME (40) = 1000 CENT (4)

FRANC: Latin Monetary Union franc/leu/drachm/lira/rubble/etc.

1 POL (1500) = 20 FRANC (75) = 2000 CENTIME (3/4)

GOLD-POUND: British empire gold-standard pound

1 IMPOUND (1980) = 4 IMPCROWN (495) = 20 IMPSHILING (99) = 240 IMPENNY (33/4)

LATINUM: Ferengi-favored system from Star Trek

1 LATINUM-BRICK (600000) = 10 LATINUM-BAR (60000) = 200 LATINUM-STRIP (3000) = 20000 LATINUM-SLIP (30)

POTTER: Rowling's Harry Potter system

1 GALEON (493) = 17 SICKLE (29) = 493 KNUT (1)

List of all theoretical currencies, in ascending order of value

NAME PICs grams grams DEFINITION
pure Ag pure Au
PIC 1 0.0578 0.0038The basic unit of the system, 1/60 pi-constant XDR
NIC 1/60 0.0010 0.0001pic subunit in the 1:60 system
COWRIE-BAHT 3/80 0.0022 0.0001Defined as 1/6400 baht
COWRIE-IND 1/20 0.0029 0.0002Defined as 32/1280 ratti of silver
NUMMUS 1/15 0.0039 0.00031/40 follis, 1/16800 solidus
G-CU 1/5 0.0116 0.0008Gram of copper
JPY14 1/4 0.0145 0.0009japanese yen, end of 2014
DENIER 5/16 0.0181 0.0012ancient subdivision of the livre, LMU franc/240, 'money' in french
DENGA 2/5 0.0231 0.0015Oldest slavic unit, 1/200 rouble, 'money' in russian
CASH 2/5 0.0231 0.00151/1000 yuan (peso), first subdivision of the yuan/peso
OTTOPARA 54/125 0.0250 0.0016ottoman para, 1/40 ottoman kurus, 1/4000 lira, 1844
REIS 1/2 0.0289 0.0019brasilian reis, 17th--19th century
PENNING 9/16 0.0325 0.00211/16 stuiver, 1/2 duit, dutch penning, 1600
WEN 3/5 0.0347 0.00231/1000 TAEL, pre-yuan chinese currency
PERSIAN-DINAR 3/5 0.0347 0.00231/50 sahi, 1/10000 toman, dinar of account, Persia, 16th-19th century
PARA-ORG 3/4 0.0434 0.0028Org reg para, 1/40 lei, 1830, Mold and Wal, 90 to a 'sfantz-org'
BAN-LMU 3/4 0.0434 0.00281/100 of the silver (LMU) Romanian LEU.
MON 3/4 0.0434 0.00281/4000 RYO, japanese pre-yen system
CENTIME 3/4 0.0434 0.00281/100 of the LMU franc.
KOPEIK 4/5 0.0463 0.0030Variant of the denga, 1/100 rouble
MJ-E 1 0.0578 0.00381 megajoule electricity
KNUT 1 0.0578 0.00381/29 SICKLE, 1/493 GALEONS, Harry Potter, see GALEON
GRAIN-S 25/24 0.0602 0.0039actual troy grain of sterling
GRAIN-AG 125/111 0.0651 0.0043actual troy grain of pure Ag
DUIT 9/8 0.0650 0.00431/8 stuiver, 1/160 guilder, 'money' in indonesia and the netherlands
VENDINARIO 4/3 0.0771 0.00511/48 grosso, or venetian ducato 1202
HEMITETARTEMORION 3/2 0.0867 0.00571/8 obol
KHALKOI 3/2 0.0867 0.00571/8 obol
MARAVEDI 5/3 0.0964 0.00631/30 real, 'money' in some languages
PAISA 9/5 0.1041 0.00681/100 rupee
RAPPEN 9/5 0.1041 0.00681/10 batzen Schwyz, Switzerland, 1801
GULDEN-CENT 9/5 0.1041 0.00681/100 guilder
RATTI 2 0.1156 0.0076ayurvedic unit, about 0.12125 g of silver, see also cowrie-ind
FOLLIS 8/3 0.1542 0.01011/420 solidus
ZAR14 14/5 0.1619 0.0106south african rand, 2014
KREUTZER 3 0.1734 0.01141/60 gulden, 1559
TETARTEMORION 3 0.1734 0.01141/4 obol
KWH-E 18/5 0.2081 0.01371 kilowatt-hour electricity
MILLICLARKE 18/5 0.2081 0.01371 clarke/1000
DANBAN 18/5 0.2081 0.0137Small coin by Dan I of Wallachia, XVth century
SOU 15/4 0.2168 0.0142Ancient subdivision of the livre
DENARO 15/4 0.2168 0.0142SOLDO/12, LIRA/240, 'money' in italian
CENT 4 0.2313 0.01521/100 dollar
WAMPUM 4 0.2313 0.0152American indian shell currency.
MCAL-E 21/5 0.2428 0.0159Electrical mega-calorie
ORE 9/2 0.2602 0.01711/2 skilling, 1/96 riksdaler 1776
PLAK 9/2 0.2602 0.01711/2 stuiver, 2 1/2 guilder-cent
TRIHEMITETARTEMORION 9/2 0.2602 0.01713/4/2 obol
DAM 9/2 0.2602 0.01711/40 rupee, 20.96g Cu
LITRE 5 0.2891 0.01901 cubic decimeter of wheat.
KG 6 0.3469 0.02281 kg of wheat
AS 6 0.3469 0.0228As, roman, 1/10 denarius
HEMIOBOL 6 0.3469 0.0228
OZ-CU 25/4 0.3613 0.0237about 1 troy oz of pure CU
FARTHING 25/4 0.3613 0.0237quarter troy sterling penny
BISTI 15/2 0.4336 0.0284quarter shahi, 1/2 pul
IMPENNY 33/4 0.4770 0.0313gold standard (1900) penny
VLADUCAT 8 0.4625 0.0303silver coin by Vladislav II, Wallachia, 1430
VENSOLDINO 8 0.4625 0.03031/4 GROSSO, venice 1332
TRITETARTEMORION 9 0.5203 0.03413/4 obol
RON14 9 0.5203 0.0341romanian new leu, end of 2014
STUVIER 9 0.5203 0.0341guilder/20
SKILLING 9 0.5203 0.03411/48 riksdaler, sweden 1776
LEON 10 0.5781 0.0379Constant romanian leu (RON), 2010
LON 10 0.5781 0.0379Convenient PIC multiple
DECAPIC 10 0.5781 0.0379Convenient PIC multiple
RADUCAT 54/5 0.6244 0.04103 DANBAN (see), in the range of the Radu I silver ducat, XVth century, Wallachia
KRONE-ORE 54/5 0.6244 0.04101/100 KRONE gold standard
FIRFIRIC 45/4 0.6504 0.042715 parale, reg organic
OBOL 12 0.6938 0.0455attic obol, drachma/6
HALFPENNY 25/2 0.7227 0.0474half troy sterling penny
WALBAN 14 0.8094 0.0531Wallachian BAN, currency of account 1/3 WALDUCAT, 1/72 fertun
BANDENAR 15 0.8672 0.05690.93g silver, denari banales hungary, 1200-1300
SESTERT 15 0.8672 0.05691/4 denarius
PUL 15 0.8672 0.05691/2 SHAHI, persia 16th cen
GRAIN-GOLD 125/8 0.9033 0.0592about troy grain of fine actual or standard (0.91 pure) gold
GRAIN-AU 275/16 0.9937 0.0652about troy grain of fine (pure) gold
G-S 16 0.9250 0.0607Sterling (0.925 Ag) gram.
G-AG 640/37 1.0000 0.0656Fine Ag gram
SCEAT 16 0.9250 0.0607pre-hastings penny, anglo-saxon, 0.9-1.3 g of good silver
QG-AG 35/2 1.0117 0.0664Approximate value of fine Ag Gram
OTTOGURUSH 432/25 0.9990 0.0655ottoman gurush/kurush, 1844, lira/100
AKCE 18 1.0406 0.0683Ottoman coin, XV century, 1.2g, 0.900
ASPRU 18 1.0406 0.0683AKCE name in other countries (e.g. Romanian principalities)
ALBUS 18 1.0406 0.06832 stuivier
BATZEN 18 1.0406 0.068310 rappen Schwyz, 1801
VINTEM 75/4 1.0840 0.0711short lived gold certificate, brazil early 19th century
NICKEL 20 1.1563 0.07581/20 silver dollar (peso, piece of eight)
B-ASPRON-TRACHY 45/2 1.3008 0.0853billon aspron trachy, 48 to hyperperon, byzantium 1100
DIOBOL 24 1.3875 0.09102 obols
PENNY 25 1.4453 0.09481/240 troy pound of sterling
SICKLE 29 1.6766 0.1100Harry Potter world money, 29 knut, 1/17 galeons, see GALEON
LEU-ORG 30 1.7344 0.1138LEU, organic regulations, moldavia and wallachia, 1830, 40 para
GROS 30 1.7344 0.1138larger penny
WAAN 30 1.7344 0.1138watt-year of electricity
USD14 30 1.7344 0.1138US dollar, end of 2014
LATINUM-SLIP 30 1.7344 0.1138One slip of gold-pressed latinum (Star Trek)
SHAHI 30 1.7344 0.1138Persia, 16th century
YARMAK 32 1.8500 0.12132g sterling, coin of Khazaria and the golden horde
GROSSO 32 1.8500 0.1213ducato/grosso venetiano, Dandolo 1202, 2.18g * 0.985 silver
QIRAN 32 1.8500 0.1213Persia, 1825--1932, 1 toman = 8 rial = 10 qiran = 200shahi = 10000 dinar
CHF14 33 1.9078 0.1251swiss franc (last LMU franc surviving) 2014
ZUZ 36 2.0812 0.1365any silver coin, palestina, 100AD
TRIOBOL 36 2.0812 0.13653 obols
BANCUTA 75/2 2.1680 0.1422moneda de 50 de bani, 1881; alternativ, 10 craitari (30 pici)
DIME 40 2.3125 0.15171/20 silver dollar
EUR14 40 2.3125 0.1517euro, end of 2014
MACUTA 40 2.3125 0.1517unit of value, W Africa, XVIIth century
WALDUCAT 42 2.4281 0.1593wallachian ducat, 1500, 3 WALBAN
SILIQUA 140/3 2.6979 0.17691/24 solidus (byzantine, Xth century)
XDR14 45 2.6016 0.1706special drawing right, 2014
SOLDO 45 2.6016 0.1706LIRA/20 ('money' in italian)
TETRAOBOL 48 2.7750 0.18204 obols
DIRHAM 50 2.8906 0.18963.1g sterling, early arabic coin
BIT 50 2.8906 0.18961/8 of a dollar
REAL 50 2.8906 0.18961/8 of a piece of 8
GBP14 50 2.8906 0.1896GB pound, end of 2014
PARA 54 3.1219 0.20483 AKCE/ASPRU, means 'money' in many balkan languages, about 1450
PXP 60 3.4688 0.2275pixipol, the reference value of the pixipol system
MONME 60 3.4688 0.22751/50 RYO, japaneze pre-yen system, 1609
DENARIUS 60 3.4688 0.2275early roman imperial denarius, reference value
IND-AG-UNIT 64 3.7000 0.2427Silver weight unit India 600--999
MILLARESION 200/3 3.8542 0.2528variable bysantine coin, defined here as 1000 nummi
KUNA 64 3.7000 0.2427slavic system, yr 900, used in Croatia afterwords
SFANTZ-ORG 135/2 3.9023 0.2559Austrian swantzig org regulations mold wallach, 6.68g x 0.583
MITHQAL-S 68 3.9313 0.25784.25 g of sterling, 1 mithqal of sterling
RIKSMARK 72 4.1625 0.2730swedish, 8 skilling, 1/6 riksdaler
DRACHM 72 4.1625 0.2730atenian drachm, broadest antic standard
MITHQAL-AG 74 4.2781 0.28064.25 g of pure Ag, 1 mithqal
FRANC 75 4.3359 0.2844LMU franc (leu, lira, drachm, etc)
LIVRE 75 4.3359 0.2844Last value of the french livre, eq LMU franc
LB-CU 75 4.3359 0.2844troy pound of copper
LARIN 76 4.3938 0.2882persian larin
RUBLE 80 4.6250 0.30331/200 hryvnia
GOLDSMARK 90 5.2031 0.3413gold standard mark (reichsmark, 1900)
IMPSHILING 99 5.7234 0.3754gold standard shilling (1900)
PISTAREEN 100 5.7813 0.37922 real
CUMINA 100 5.7813 0.3792copper attic mina (500g)
TANGA 100 5.7813 0.3792Timur 1400, persia, 6.2g silver
QUARTER 100 5.7813 0.37921/4 dollar (piece of eight)
GROAT 100 5.7813 0.3792fourpence
HECTOPIC 100 5.7813 0.3792100 PIC
DON 100 5.7813 0.379210 LON, 100 PIC convenient multiple
SIGLOI 108 6.2438 0.40951/20 daric
KRONE 108 6.2438 0.4095Scandinavian monetary union KRONE, 403 mg Au, gold standard
RIKSMYNT-DALER 108 6.2438 0.4095RIKSMYNT RIKSDALER, 1/4 SPECIE RIKSDALER, SWEDEN 1855
ANTONINIANUS 120 6.9375 0.4550double denarius
MIRULIRA 120 6.9375 0.4550charming private currency
VIC14 120 6.9375 0.45501USD+1GBP+1EUR=1 victoric, private currency, value in 2014
ABBASI 120 6.9375 0.4550Persia, 16th cen, 4 sahi
SHEKEL 144 8.3250 0.5460One of the 'light' shekels
DIDRACHM 144 8.3250 0.5460Atenian, 2drh
STATER 144 8.3250 0.5460Earliest unit of measure, in silver
GOLDGUILDER 160 9.2500 0.6067Dutch guilder, 1850-1936, gold standard 605mg
RUPEE 180 10.4063 0.6825First silver ruppe
GUILDER 180 10.4063 0.6825Dutch guilder, 1680-1850
SHU 375/2 10.8398 0.7109RYO/16, japanese pre-yen system
IMPFLORIN 192 11.1000 0.72802 shillings, 1900
PESETA 200 11.5625 0.7583first peseta, 1/2 peso
KG-CU 200 11.5625 0.7583kg of copper
ECU 225 13.0078 0.85313 livre
REICHSTHALER 232 13.4125 0.8797Prusia thaler, 1750-1857, 12/14 of VEREINSTHALER
BAHT 240 13.8750 0.9100silver baht: 15g Ag (sterling) or 6/10 dollar
G-GOLD 240 13.8750 0.9100g 0.91 Au (standard/actual) gold
G-AU 264 15.2625 1.0010g pure Au
DAALDER 270 15.6094 1.02381.5 gulden, 30 stuiver
VEREINSTHALER 270 15.6094 1.0238500/30g, pure Ag, unknown fineness, but 3 goldmarks
SHILLING 300 17.3438 1.1375troy sterling shilling
TETRADRACHM 288 16.6500 1.09204 drachm, important atenian drachm multiple
AES-SIGNATUM 300 17.3438 1.13751.5-1.6kg of copper, very early roman currency (450BC)
TYRSHEKEL 300 17.3438 1.1375temple, tyrian, large shekel
TESTOON 300 17.3438 1.1375shilling coin, 1505
MAHMUDIYE 350 20.2344 1.3271mahmudea 1833 1.6g 0.930 gold
LEEUWENDAALDER 360 20.8125 1.365027.68g silver x 0.75, 1600
DALEON 360 20.8125 1.3650easier name of the LEEUWENDAALDER
E-ASPRON-TRACHY 360 20.8125 1.3650byzantine electrum aspron-trachy 1/3 hyperperon
PENTADRACHM 360 20.8125 1.3650byzantine electrum aspron-trachy 1/3 hyperperon
DOLLAR 400 23.1250 1.5167piece of eight, peso, piaster, yuan, yen
P-O-EIGHT 400 23.1250 1.5167piece of eight, peso
MTTHALER 400 23.1250 1.5167Maria Theresa thaler
CONVENTHALER 400 23.1250 1.5167Conventions thaler, 1/10 cologne mark [of pure Ag]
PESO 400 23.1250 1.5167piece of eight, peso
RIKSDALER 432 24.9750 1.63804 krone, riksdaler specie, like norwegian specie daler
HEXADRACHM 432 24.9750 1.63806drh
TALER 450 26.0156 1.7063most thalers
JOACHIMSTHALER 450 26.0156 1.7063joachimsthaler
RIJKSDAALDER 450 26.0156 1.706350 stuivers, 2.5 gulden
IMPCROWN 495 28.6172 1.87695 gold standard shillings (1900)
CROWN 500 28.9063 1.89581/12 troy sterling pound, cca 5 impshilling or 5 gbp90
QUINTAL 500 28.9063 1.8958quintal of wheat
MILREIS 500 28.9063 1.8958portugal early modern
OZ-S 500 28.9063 1.89581/12 troy pound, sterling
GULDENGROSCHEN 504 29.1375 1.9110Guldengroschen Austria 1480
GALEON 493 28.5016 1.8693Harry Potter money. About 4.97 GBP or 10.17 USD, late XXth century.
OZ-AG 540 31.2188 2.04751/12 POUND, pure AG
DUCATOON 540 31.2188 2.047560 stuiver
OCTADRACHM 576 33.3000 2.18408 drachmae
FLORIN 600 34.6875 2.27502 troy sterling shillings
TAEL 600 34.6875 2.275037.5g sterling, pre-yuan silver unit in China
GCAL-T 630 36.4219 2.3888gigacalorie thermal
DECADRACHM 720 41.6250 2.7300largest athenian coin
BU 750 43.3594 2.8438RYO/4 japanese pre-yen system
MANCUS 750 43.3594 2.8438Coenwulf, yr 800, 30 pennies
WALPERPER 756 43.7062 2.8665Wallachian perper (money of account) 18 WALDUCAT
CHERVONET 800 46.2500 3.033310 rubles or one zlot
ZLOT 800 46.2500 3.0333early ducat-like gold coin in Poland
SCUD 800 46.2500 3.03332 pieces of eight, gold (escudo)
DUCAT 900 52.0313 3.4125reference gold coin, venice, 1500, 2 thalers
FIORINO 900 52.0313 3.4125fiorino d'oro, = 1 ducat
LIRA 900 52.0313 3.4125First italian lira, account money = 1 fiorino
KOKU 900 52.0313 3.4125Enough grain (150kg) to feed a man for a year (JP)
GALBEN-ORG 945 54.6328 3.5831Dutch ducat, org regul, mold wallach, 31 lei+20 para
GJ-E 1000 57.8125 3.79171 gigajoule electrical
KILOPIC 1000 57.8125 3.7917kilo-PIC
SOL 1000 57.8125 3.7917a more convenient solidus-class value for the pic sustem
FERTUN 1008 58.2750 3.82201/4 mark, money of account, medieval Hungary
MITHQAL-G 1020 58.9688 3.86754.25g of 0.91 gold (our gold standard purity)
IND-AU-UNIT 1024 59.2000 3.8827Gold weight unit India 600--999
DINAR 1050 60.7031 3.9813reference arabic coin, mithqal of purer gold
SOLIDUS 1050 60.7031 3.9813reference, widely used, byzantine coin, 1100
HYPERPYRON 1080 62.4375 4.0950Bysantium, 4.45g Au, 0.9--0.95
BEZANT 1080 62.4375 4.0950another name for the hyperpyron
NOMISMA 1120 64.7500 4.2467reference, original solidus, the original high purity, 4.48g
DEBEN 1440 83.2500 5.4600egyptian unit, silver
CROESID 1440 83.2500 5.4600first ever, lydian, coin, one stater electrum 55%, by Croesus
AUREUS 1500 86.7188 5.6875reference roman coin (Diocletian)
POL 1500 86.7188 5.6875napoleon gold coin
PISTOLE 1600 92.5000 6.06672 scuds, gold
OTTOLIRA 1728 99.9000 6.5520ottoman lira, 1844-1920 99.82 g pure silver, 6.62g gold, gold standard
LOUIS 1800 104.0625 6.825024 livre
IMPOUND 1980 114.4688 7.5075gold standard british pound (1900)
SOVEREIGN 1980 114.4688 7.5075gold standard british pound (1900)
NOBLE 2000 115.6250 7.5833Gold coin Edward III, 1/3 troy pound
DARIC 2160 124.8750 8.1900reference coin, persian empire, darius the great
FILIPIC 2160 124.8750 8.1900reference coin, macedonian kingdom, filip the great
KOSON 2160 124.8750 8.1900dacian gold coin, about 1 stater of pure gold, 30 drachmas
MOHUR 2700 156.0938 10.2375mohur, 15 silver ruppee, also 10.95g gold
RYO 3000 173.4375 11.3750pre-yen currency in Japan, Togukawa, 1609, cca 187g silver
LATINUM-STRIP 3000 173.4375 11.3750One strip of gold-pressed latinum (Star Trek)
GRIVNA 3200 185.0000 12.1333weight unit, in silver (200g) slavic world
PXO 3600 208.1250 13.6500pixorlant, 60 pixipols, multiple in the pic sistem
CLARKE 3600 208.1250 13.6500Arthur C Clarke predicted MWh as universal currency unit in 2016
MWH-E 3600 208.1250 13.6500megawatt-hour electricity
OVIS 3600 208.1250 13.6500maximum price of a good, healthy, full-grown sheep
OXHIDE-INGOT 3600 208.1250 13.6500bronze age currency, some 20-30kg copper (could be 4000-6000 pic)
MARK-LOEDIG 3600 208.1250 13.6500210g, scandinavian mark, 9/10 colgne mark
EAGLE 4000 231.2500 15.166710 US dollars, as defined by the coinage act of 1792
MARK 4000 231.2500 15.1667medieval sterling mark, 2/3 troy pound
GCAL-E 4200 242.8125 15.9250giga-calorie, electrical
POUND 6000 346.8750 22.7500troy pound of sterling, widely used theoretical currency
TOMAN 6000 346.8750 22.7500200 sahi, 10000 dinar of account, Persia XVIth century (initial value)
TON 6000 346.8750 22.7500metric ton of wheat
FUND 6400 370.0000 24.26672 hrivnyas
DOUBLOON 6400 370.0000 24.26678 scuds
MINA 7200 416.2500 27.3000attic mina of sterling
OZ-GOLD 7500 433.5938 28.4375about 1 gold troy oz of 0.91 (actual/standard) gold
OZ-AU 8250 476.9531 31.2813about 1 gold troy oz of fine (pure) gold
KLON 10000 578.1250 37.9167a more convenient mina-class value for the pic sustem
KG-S 16000 925.0000 60.6667Sterling (0.925 Ag) gram.
KG-AG 640000/37 1000.0000 65.5856Fine Ag kgram
QKG-AG 17500 1011.7188 66.3542Approximate value of fine Ag kgram
VACA 36000 2081.2500 136.5000Price of a cow
LATINUM-BAR 60000 3468.7500 227.5000One bar of gold-pressed latinum (Star Trek)
LB-GOLD 90000 5203.1250 341.2500about 1 troy pound of fine actual or standard (0.91 pure) gold
LB-AU 99000 5723.4375 375.3750about 1 troy pound of fine (pure) gold
GALACTIC-CREDIT 120000 6937.5000 455.0000galactic credit standard of Star Wars
KG-GOLD 240000 13875.0000 910.0000g 0.91 Au (standard/actual) gold
PXT 216000 12487.5000 819.0000pictalant, 60 pixorlants, 3600 pixipols
KG-AU 264000 15262.5000 1001.0000g pure Au
TALANT 432000 24975.0000 1638.0000attic talent of sterling
CONTODEREIS 500000 28906.2500 1895.8334modern portugal money of account
LATINUM-BRICK 600000 34687.5000 2275.0000Supposedly one brick of gold-pressed latinum (Star Trek), hundred pounds
MOL 1000000 57812.5000 3791.66671000 sol, convenient pic system multiple
TJ-E 1000000 57812.5000 3791.6667Terrajoule, electrical
GWH-E 3600000 208125.0000 13650.0000Gigawatthour, electrical
KILOCLARKE 3600000 208125.0000 13650.0000Gigawatthour, electrical